Category Archives: Winemaking

  • 0
A Glossary of Wine Terms

A Glossary of wine terms

Tags : 

by Robert Parker


acetic: Wines, no matter how well made, contain quantities of acetic acidity that have a vinegary smell. If there is an excessive amount of acetic acidity, the wine will have a vinegary smell and be a flawed, acetic wine.

acidic: Wines need natural acidity to taste fresh and lively, but an excess of acidity results in an acidic wine that is tart and sour.

acidity: The acidity level in a wine is critical to its enjoyment and livelihood. The natural acids that appear in wine are citric, tartaric, malic, and lactic. Wines from hot years tend to be lower in acidity, whereas wines from cool, rainy years tend to be high in acidity. Acidity in a wine can preserve the wine’s freshness and keep the wine lively, but too much acidity, which masks the wines flavors and compresses its texture, is a flaw.

aftertaste: As the term suggests, the taste left in the mouth when one swallows is the aftertaste. This word is a synonym for length or finish. The longer the aftertaste lingers in the mouth (assuming it is a pleasant taste), the finer the quality of the wine.

aggressive: Aggressive is usually applied to wines that are either high in acidity or have harsh tannins, or both.

angular: Angular wines are wines that lack roundness, generosity, and depth. Wine from poor vintages or wines that are too acidic are often described as being angular.

aroma: Aroma is the smell of a young wine before it has had sufficient time to develop nuances of smell that are then called its bouquet. The word aroma is commonly used to mean the smell of a relatively young, unevolved wine.

astringent: Wines that are astringent are not necessarily bad or good wines. Astringent wines are harsh and coarse to taste, either because they are too young and tannic and just need time to develop, or because they are not well made. The level of tannins (if it is harsh) in a wine contributes to its degree of astringence.

austere: Wines that are austere are generally not terribly pleasant wines to drink. An austere wine is a hard, rather dry wine that lacks richness and generosity. However, young Rhônes are not as austere as young Bordeaux.

backward: An adjective used to describe (1) a young largely unevolved, closed, and undrinkable wine, (2) a wine that is not ready to drink, or (3) a wine that simply refuses to release its charms and personality.

balance: One of the most desired traits in a wine is good balance, where the concentration of fruit, level of tannins, and acidity are in total harmony. Balanced wines are symmetrical and tend to age gracefully.

barnyard: An unclean, farmyard, fecal aroma that is imparted to a wine because of unclean barrels or unsanitary winemaking facilities.

berrylike: As this descriptive term implies, most red wines have an intense berry fruit character that can suggest blackberries, raspberries, black cherries, mulberries, or even strawberries and cranberries.

big: A big wine is a large-framed, full-bodied wine with an intense and concentrated feel on the palate. Most red Rhône wines are big wines.

blackcurrant: A pronounced smell of blackcurrant fruit is commonly associated with certain Rhône wines. It can vary in intensity from faint to very deep and rich.

body: Body is the weight and fullness of a wine that can be sensed as it crosses the palate. full-bodied wines tend to have a lot of alcohol, concentration, and glycerin.

Botrytis cinerea: The fungus that attacks the grape skins under specific climatic conditions (usually alternating periods of moisture and sunny weather). It causes the grape to become superconcentrated because it causes a natural dehydration. Botrytis cinerea is essential for the great sweet white wines of Barsac and Sauternes. It rarely occurs in the Rhône Valley because of the dry, constant sunshine and gusty winds.

bouquet: As a wine’s aroma becomes more developed from bottle aging, the aroma is transformed into a bouquet that is hopefully more than just the smell of the grape.

brawny: A hefty, muscular, full-bodied wine with plenty of weight and flavor, although not always the most elegant or refined sort of wine.

briery: I think of California Zinfandel when the term briery comes into play, denoting that the wine is aggressive and rather spicy.

brilliant: Brilliant relates to the color of the wine. A brilliant wine is one that s clear, with no haze or cloudiness to the color.

browning: As red wines age, their color changes from ruby/purple to dark ruby, to medium ruby, to ruby with an amber edge, to ruby with a brown edge. When a wine is browning it is usually fully mature and not likely to get better.

carbonic maceration: This vinification method is used to make soft, fruity, very accessible wines. Whole clusters of grapes are put into a vat that is then filled with carbonic gas. This system is used when fruit is to be emphasized in the final wine in contrast to structure and tannin.

cedar: Rhône reds can have a bouquet that suggests either faintly or overtly the smell of cedarwood. It is a complex aspect of the bouquet.

chewy: If a wine has a rather dense, viscous texture from a high glycerin content, it is often referred to as being chewy. High-extract wines from great vintages can often be chewy, largely because they have higher alcohol hence high levels of glycerin, which imparts a fleshy mouthfeel.

closed: The term closed is used to denote that the wine is not showing its potential, which remains locked in because it is too young. Young wines often close up about 12-18 months after bottling, and depending on the vintage and storage conditions, remain in such a state for several years to more than a decade.

complex: One of the most subjective descriptive terms used, a complex wine is a wine that the taster never gets bored with and finds interesting to drink. Complex wines tend to have a variety of subtle scents and flavors that hold one’s interest in the wine.

concentrated: Fine wines, whether they are light-, medium-, or full-bodied, should have concentrated flavors. Concentrated denotes that the wine has a depth and richness of fruit that gives it appeal and interest. Deep is a synonym for concentrated.

corked: A corked wine is a flawed wine that has taken on the smell of cork as a result of an unclean or faulty cork. It is perceptible in a bouquet that shows no fruit, only the smell of musty cork, which reminds me of wet cardboard.

cuvée: Many producers in the Rhône Valley produce special, deluxe lots of wine or a lot of wine from a specific grape variety that they bottle separately. These lots are often referred to as cuvées.

decadent: If you are an ice cream and chocolate lover, you know the feeling of eating a huge sundae of rich vanilla ice cream lavished with hot fudge and real whipped cream. If you are a wine enthusiast, a wine loaded with opulent, even unctuous layers of fruit, with a huge bouquet, and a plump, luxurious texture can be said to be decadent.

deep: Essentially the same as concentrated, expressing the fact that the wine is rich, full of extract, and mouth filling.

delicate: As this word implies, delicate wines are light, subtle, understated wines that are prized for their shyness rather than for an extroverted, robust character. White wines are usually more delicate than red wines. Few Rhône red wines can correctly be called delicate.

demi-muid: 650-liter Burgundy barrels which are essentially the equivalent of three regular barrels.

diffuse: Wines that smell and taste unstructured and unfocused are said to be diffuse. When red wines are served at too warm a temperature they often become diffuse.

double decanting: This is done by first decanting the wine into a decanter and then rinsing the original bottle out with non-chlorinated water and then immediately repouring the wine from the decanter back into the bottle. It varies with the wine as to how long you cork it.

dumb: A dumb wine is also a closed wine, but the term dumb is used more pejoratively. Closed wines may need only time to reveal their richness and intensity. Dumb wines may never get any better.

earthy: May be used in both a negative and a positive sense; however, I prefer to use earthy to denote a positive aroma of fresh, rich, clean soil. Earthy is a more intense smell than woody or truffle scents.

elegant: Although more white wines than red are described as being elegant, lighter-styled, graceful, balance red wines can be elegant.

extract: This is everything in a wine besides water, sugar, alcohol, and acidity.

exuberant: Like extroverted, somewhat hyper people, wines too can be gushing with fruit and seem nervous and intensely vigorous.

fat: When the Rhône has an exceptionally hot year for its crop and the wines attain a super sort of maturity, they are often quite rich and concentrated, with low to average acidity. Often such wines are said to be fat, which is a prized commodity. If they become too fat, that is a flaw and they are then called flabby.

flabby: A wine that is too fat or obese is a flabby wine. Flabby wines lack structure and are heavy to taste.

fleshy: Fleshy is a synonym for chewy, meaty, or beefy. It denotes that the wine has a lot of body, alcohol, and extract, and usually a high glycerin content. Châteauneuf-du-Pape and Hermitage are particularly fleshy wines.

floral: Wines made from the Muscat or Viognier grape have a flowery component, and occasionally a red wine will have a floral scent.

focused: Both a fine wine’s bouquet and flavor should be focused. Focused simply means that the scents, aromas, and flavors are precise and clearly delineated. If they are not, the wine is like an out-of-focus picture-diffuse, hazy, and possibly problematic.

forward: An adjective used to describe wines that are (1) delicious, evolved, and close to maturity, (2) wines that border on being flamboyant or ostentatious, or (3) unusually evolved and/or quickly maturing wines.

foudre: Large oak barrels that vary enormously in size but are significantly larger than the normal oak barrel used in Bordeaux or the piece used in Burgundy. They are widely used in the Rhône Valley.

fresh: Freshness in both young and old wines is a welcome and pleasing component. A wine is said to be fresh when it is lively and cleanly made. The opposite of fresh is stale. fruity: A very good wine should have enough concentration of fruit so that it can be said to be fruity. Fortunately, the best wines will have more than just a fruity personality.

full-bodied: Wines rich in extract, alcohol, and glycerin are full-bodied wines. Most Rhône wines are full-bodied.

garrigue: In the southern Rhône Valley and Provence, this is the landscape of small slopes and plateaus. This Provençal word applies to these windswept hilltops/slopes inhabited by scrub-brush and Provençal herb outcroppings. The smell of garrigue is often attributed to southern Rhône Valley wines. Suggesting more than the smell of herbes de Provence, it encompasses an earthy/herbal concoction of varying degrees of intensity.

green: Green wines are wines made from underripe grapes; they lack richness and generosity as well as having a vegetal character. Green wines are infrequently made in the Rhone, although vintages such as 1977 were characterized by a lack of ripening.

hard: Wines with abrasive, astringent tannins or high acidity are said to be hard. Young vintages of Rhône wines can be hard, but they should never be harsh.

harsh: If a wine is too hard it is said to be harsh. Harshness in a wine, young or old, is a flaw.

hedonistic: Certain styles of wine are meant to be inspected; they are introspective and intellectual wines. Others are designed to provide sheer delight, joy, and euphoria. Hedonistic wines can be criticized because in one sense they provide so much ecstasy that they can be called obvious, but in essence, they are totally gratifying wines meant to fascinate and enthrall-pleasure at its best.

herbaceous: Many wines have a distinctive herbal smell that is generally said to be herbaceous. Specific herbal smells can be of thyme, lavender, rosemary, oregano, fennel, or basil and are common in Rhône wines.

herbes de Provence: Provence is known for the wild herbs that grow prolifically through- out the region. These include lavender, thyme, sage, rosemary, and oregano. It is not just an olfactory fancy to smell many of these herbs in Rhône Valley wines, particularly those made in the south.

hollow: Also known as shallow, hollow wines are diluted and lack depth and concentration.

honeyed: A common personality trait of specific white Rhône wines, a honeyed wine is one that has the smell and taste of bee’s honey.

hot: Rather than meaning that the temperature of the wine is too warm to drink, hot denotes that the wine is too high in alcohol and therefore leaves a burning sensation in the back of the throat when swallowed. Wines with alcohol levels in excess of 14.5% often taste hot if the requisite depth of fruit is not present.

inox vats: This is the French term for stainless steel vats that are used for both fermentation and storage of wine.

intensity: Intensity is one of the most desirable traits of a high-quality wine. Wines of great intensity must also have balance. They should never be heavy or cloying. Intensely concentrated great wines are alive, vibrant, aromatic, layered, and texturally compelling. Their intensity adds to their character, rather than detracting from it.

jammy: When wines have a great intensity of fruit from excellent ripeness they can be jammy, which is a very concentrated, flavorful wine with superb extract. In great vintages such as 1961, 1978, 1985, 1989, 1990, and 1995, some of the wines are so concentrated that they are said to be jammy.

Kisselguhr filtration system: This is a filtration system using diatomaceous earth as the filtering material, rather than cellulose, or in the past, before it was banned, asbestos.

leafy: A leafy character in a wine is similar to a herbaceous character only in that it refers to the smell of leaves rather than herbs. A wine that is too leafy is a vegetal or green wine.

lean: Lean wines are slim, rather streamlined wines that lack generosity and fatness but can still be enjoyable and pleasant.

lively: A synonym for fresh or exuberant, a lively wine is usually young wine with good acidity and a thirst-quenching personality.

long: A very desirable trait in any fine wine is that it be long in the mouth. Long (or length) relates to a wine’s finish, meaning that after you swallow the wine, you sense its presence for a long time. (Thirty seconds to several minutes is great length.) In a young wine, the difference between something good and something great is the length of the wine.

lush: Lush wines are velvety, soft, richly fruity wines that are both concentrated and fat. A lush wine can never be an astringent or hard wine.

massive: In great vintages where there is a high degree of ripeness and superb concentration, some wines can turn out to be so big, full-bodied, and rich that they are called massive. A great wine such as the 1961 or 1990 Hermitage La Chapelle is a textbook example of a massive wine.

meaty: A chewy, fleshy wine is also said to be meaty.

monocepage: This term describes a wine made totally of one specific varietal.

monopole: Used to denote a vineyard owned exclusively by one proprietor, the word monopole appears on the label of a wine made from such a vineyard.

morsellated: Many vineyards are fragmented, with multiple growers owning a portion of the same vineyard. Such a vineyard is often referred to as a morsellated vineyard.

mouth-filling: Big, rich, concentrated wines that are filled with fruit extract and are high in alcohol and glycerin are wines that tend to texturally fill the mouth. A mouth-filling wine is also a chewy, fleshy, fat wine.

musty: Wines aged in dirty barrels or unkept cellars or exposed to a bad cork take on a damp, musty character that is a flaw.

nose: The general smell and aroma of a wine as sensed through one’s nose and olfactory senses is often called the wine’s nose.

oaky: Many red Rhône wines are aged from 6 months to 30 months in various sizes of oak barrels. At some properties, a percentage of the oak barrels may be new, and these barrels impart a toasty, vanillin flavor and smell to the wine. If the wine is not rich and concentrated, the barrels can overwhelm the wine, making it taste overly oaky. Where the wine is rich and concentrated and the winemaker has made a judicious use of barrels, however, the results are a wonderful marriage of fruit and oak.

off: If a wine is not showing its true character, or is flawed or spoiled in some way, it is said to be “off.”

overripe: An undesirable characteristic; grapes left too long on the vine become too ripe, lose their acidity, and produce wines that are heavy and balance. This can happen frequently in the hot viticultural areas of the Rhône Valley if the growers harvest too late.

oxidized: If a wine has been excessively exposed to air during either its making or aging, the wine loses freshness and takes on a stale, old smell and taste. Such a wine is said to be oxidized.

peppery: A peppery quality to a wine is usually noticeable in many Rhône wines that have an aroma of black or white pepper and a pungent flavor.

perfumed: This term usually is more applicable to fragrant, aromatic white wines than to red wines. However, some of the dry white wines (particularly Condrieu) and sweet white wines can have a strong perfumed smell.

pigéage: A winemaking technique of punching down the cap of grape skins that forms during the beginning of the wine’s fermentation. This is done several times a day, occasionally more frequently, to extract color, flavor, and tannin from the fermenting juice.

plummy: Rich, concentrated wines can often have the smell and taste of ripe plums. When they do, the term plummy is applicable.

ponderous: Ponderous is often used as a synonym for massive, but in my usage a massive wine is simply a big, rich, very concentrated wine with balance, whereas a ponderous wine is a wine that has become heavy and tiring to drink.

precocious: Wines that mature quickly are precocious. However the term also applies to wines that may last and evolve gracefully over a long period of time, but taste as if they are aging quickly because of their tastiness and soft, early charms.

pruney: Wines produced from grapes that are overripe take on the character of prunes. Pruney wines are flawed wines.

raisiny: Late-harvest wines that are meant to be drunk at the end of a meal can often be slightly raisiny, which in some ports and sherries is desirable. However, a raisiny quality is a major flaw in a dinner wine.

rich: Wines that are high in extract, flavor, and intensity of fruit.

ripe: A wine is ripe when its grapes have reached the optimum level of maturity. Less than fully mature grapes produce wines that are underripe, and overly mature grapes produce wines that are overripe.

round: A very desirable character of wines, roundness occurs in fully mature wines that have lost their youthful, astringent tannins, and also in young wines that have soft tannins and low acidity.

savory: A general descriptive term that denotes that the wine is round, flavorful, and interesting to drink.

shallow: A weak, feeble, watery or diluted wine lacking concentration is said to be shallow.

sharp: An undesirable trait, sharp wines are bitter and unpleasant with hard, pointed edges.

silky: A synonym for velvety or lush, silky wines are soft, sometimes fat, but never hard or angular.

smoky: Some wines, either because of the soil or because of the barrels used to age the wine, have a distinctive smoky character. Côte Rôtie and Hermitage often have a roasted or smoky quality.

soft: A soft wine is one that is round and fruity, low in acidity, and has an absence of aggressive, hard tannins.

spicy: Wines often smell quite spicy with aromas of pepper, cinnamon, and other well-known spices. These pungent aromas are usually lumped together and called spicy.

stale: Dull, heavy wines that are oxidized or lack balancing acidity for freshness are called stale.

stalky: A synonym for vegetal, but used more frequently to denote that the wine has probably had too much contact with the stems, resulting in a green, vegetal, or stalky character to the wine.

supple: A supple wine is one that is soft, lush, velvety, and very attractively round and tasty. It is a highly desirable characteristic because it suggests that the wine is harmonious.

tannic: The tannins of a wine, which are extracted from the grape skins and stems, are, along with a wine’s acidity and alcohol, its lifeline. Tannins give a wine firmness and some roughness when young, but gradually fall away and dissipate. A tannic wine is one that is young and unready to drink.

tart: Sharp, acidic, lean, unripe wines are called tart. In general, a wine that is tart is not pleasurable.

thick: Rich, ripe, concentrated wines that are low in acidity are often said to be thick.

thin: A synonym for shallow; it is an undesirable characteristic for a wine to be thin, meaning that it is watery, lacking in body, and just diluted.

tightly knit: Young wines that have good acidity levels, good tannin levels, and are well made are called tightly knit, meaning they have yet to open up and develop.

toasty: A smell of grilled toast can often be found in wines because the barrels the wines are aged in are charred or toasted on the inside.

tobacco: Some red wines have the scent of fresh tobacco. It is a distinctive and wonderful smell in wine.

troncais oak: This type of oak comes from the forest of Troncais in central France.

unctuous: Rich, lush, intense wines with layers of concentrated, soft, velvety fruit are said to be unctuous.

vegetal: An undesirable characteristic, wines that smell and taste vegetal are usually made from unripe grapes. In some wines, a subtle vegetable garden smell is pleasant and adds complexity, but if it is the predominant character, it is a major flaw.

velvety: A textural description and synonym for lush or silky, a velvety wine is a rich, soft, smooth wine to taste. It is a very desirable characteristic.

viscous: Viscous wines tend to be relatively concentrated, fat, almost thick wines with a great density of fruit extract, plenty of glycerin, and high alcohol content. If they have balancing acidity, they can be tremendously flavorful and exciting wines. If they lack acidity, they are often flabby and heavy.

volatile: A volatile wine is one that smells of vinegar as a result of an excessive amount of acetic bacteria present. It is a seriously flawed wine.

woody: When a wine is overly oaky it is often said to be woody. Oakiness in a wine’s bouquet and taste is good up to a point. Once past that point, the wine is woody and its fruity qualities are masked by excessive oak aging.

  • 0

Le Noveau ést arrivé

Tags : 

This is the slogan for Beaujolais Nouveau Day, the third Thursday in November when wine lovers in France and around the world race to take part in the traditional tasting of the year’s Beaujolais Nouveau. Far from France and Beaujolais, Ubifrance celebrated the day by offering a Beaujolais taste at Alliance Française, on Kildare St. There was Patrick Thevenet, presenting wines from AOC Chénas and Moulin à Vent – délicieux!Beaujolais is a French AOC wine usually made from the Gamay grape. Whites are made mostly from Chardonnay grapes though Aligoté is also permitted. Beaujolais tends to be a very light-bodied red wine, with relatively high amounts of acidity.The wine takes its name from the historical Province of Beaujolais, located north of Lyon, and covers parts of the north of the Rhône, in the Rhône-Alpes region, and southern areas of the Saône-et-Loire in Burgundy. The region is known internationally for its long tradition of winemaking, for the use of carbonic maceration.

But there are more than Le Noveau in Beaujolais. Some wines are made to be released later, and the best ones come from areas named Crus, classified as stand-alone appellations. They are: Brouilly, Chénas, Chiroubles, Côte de Brouilly, Fleurie, Juliénas, Morgon, Moulin-à-Vent, Régnié and St. Amour. While Le Nouveau is made in a drink-now style, Les Crus are made more traditionally, and tend to be released a year or two later.

  • 0

Piedmont Beyond Barolo

Tags : 

There are much more in Piemont than the usual Barolos, Barbarescos and Barberas!


In addition to its (Nebbiolo) notable scent, the wine has a great amount of acidity, mouth-drying tannins and earthy flavours.

Piedmont, or Piemonte in Italian, is Italy’s most distinguished viticultural province. The region combines Alpine and Mediterranean zones, and houses more DOCGs (Denominazione d’Origine Controllata e Garantita) than any other Italian wine region.

Barolo and Barbaresco, which are made from Nebbiolo grape, can only be made in a few villages in the region of Piedmont, but Nebbiolo is grown all over the region, not just in the villages that use it to create the high-end wines.

One of the most beautiful aspects of Nebbiolo is its scent — the wine actually smells of roses. In addition to this notable scent, the wine has a great amount of acidity, mouth-drying tannins and earthy flavours.

You might look for Dolcetto di Dogliani – also labelled simply Dogliani – for a more serious wine. Recently elevated to DOCG status, these wines are low-yielding, latepicked, super-selected, concentrated, (almost always) barrel-aged with a weight and structure foreign to other Dolcettos. Its dry austerity can often be mouth puckering, then you’ll need to add cellar time them. The result is a satisfying, rich, chunky, vigorous wine that opens a new and unsuspected window on the Langhe.

Other important, yet lesser known red varieties include: Grignolino (a red grape with intense flavors, brisk acidity and notable tannin and light body), Ruché (a rare aromatic red grape which offers intense aromas and flavours of nutmeg, cinnamon, lavender, peony and dark red cherries), Pelaverga (produces bright and perfumed wines, with accents of roses and violets, medium bodied and very fresh), Vespolina (bright with hints of sour red berries, violet and white pepper) and Freisa (perfumed, tannic and acidic – perfect for hearted dishes as stews and saussages)

White wines are slightly less famous, but equally distinct, food friendly, and versatile. Grapes like Arneis (complex with a soft bouquet of fresh flowers, ripe fruit and hazelnut), Cortese (moderate acidity and light, crisp flavors, medium bodied with notes of limes and greengage), Erbaluce (dry with noticeable acidity and apple aromas and flavors) and Moscato (elegant floral aromas and notes of peach, apricot and fresh grape juice) will give you a true taste of Piedmont whites.

While Barolo and Barbaresco are the stars, the number one grape planted in Piedmont is Barbera, and its most famous expressions come from the southeast neighboring communes of Asti and Alba. Barbera is crowd-pleasing with typically juicy black and red berry fruit, high acid, medium alcohol and soft tannins. The second most planted variety is Dolcetto, which generally offers more delicate fruit and lighter body, often benefiting from a light chill before serving.

  • 0

Wine Grapes

Tags : 

Vitis vinifera is a species of Vitis (wine grapes), native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. Although there are currently between 5000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, only a few are of commercial significance for wine and table grape production. All of the familiar wine varieties belong to Vitis vinifera, which is cultivated on every continent except for Antarctica, and in all the major wine regions of the world.

Below you’ll find the more popular grape varietals and a brief description of each.

Grape Name Description
Aglianico Red Grape Southern Italy’s most prominent red grape, it produces the famous Taurasi wine. Full of fruity, smoky complexities – tannic when young, harmonious, dense and oaky.
Albariño White Grape Spanish white varietal producing a crisp, fruity wine similar to Riesling.
Aligote White Grape Used in the Burgundy region of France. The Aligote is  generally considered unimpressive, but it is still used to make a few wines.
Auxerrois Red Grape The local French name for the Malbec (or Côt) red wine grape variety grown in the Cahors region of France.
Baga Red Grape Predominant in the Bairrada region of Portugal, where this grape accounts for 80 percent of all grapes grown, it is quite dependable and shows promise, has yet to establish truly fine varietal characteristics.
Barbera Red Grape A prolific Italian variety grown in Piedmont, making light, fresh, fruity wines that are gradually growing in quality and popularity.
Cabernet Franc Red Grape One of the major black grape varieties worldwide. It is mainly blended with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the Bordeaux style, but can also made varietals. It is lighter than Cabernet Sauvignon, making a bright pale wine that lends finesse to blends with more robust grapes.
Cabernet Sauvignon Red Grape The primary grape used in Bordeaux and Meritage red wines. It provides elegance and structure. Flavors are of blackcurrants and cedar, but in other areas may include green peppers and mint.
Carmenère Red Grape See also Grand Vidure. Primary grape of Chile producing bold red wines, it is sometimes mistaken for Merlot.
Chardonnay White Grape This classic variety is responsible for producing the greatest white Burgundies and is one of the three major grape types used in the production of Champagne. Also known as Muscadet, Pinot blanc and Pinot chardonnay.
Chenin Blanc White Grape A variety used in the Chenin Blanc region of France. Good acidity level, thin skin and a high natural sugar content, making it very suitable for either sparkling or sweet wines, although some dry wines, are made from it.
Cinsault Red Grape A prolific grape found mainly in southern Rhone and Languedoc-Roussillon vineyards, where it makes robust, well-coloured wines. Best results are obtained when it is blended, as at Chateauneuf-du-Pape, for example.
Colombard White Grape A grape that produces thin and acidic wine ideal for the distillation of Armagnac and Cognac, but has adapted well to the hotter winelands of California and South Africa, where its high acidity is a positive attribute.
Cortese White Grape The primary grape for Gavi wine, this grape ripens early and makes a neutral white wine. It is grown primarily in Piedmont, Italy.
Corvina Red Grape A prolific Italian variety where is it blended into the windes of Bardolino and Valpolicella. The grape’s thick skins contribute color and tannin. Has leathery, chocolaty, nutty-spicy, and herbal flavors and some cherry aromas.
Dolcetto Red Grape Well-known grape widely grown in Piedmont region of Italy. Has synonym name Nera Dolce, meaning “Sweet Black” in english. Has aroma flavors described as reminiscent of almond and liqorice.
Dornfelder Red Grape German hybrid developed in 1956 which produces a dark-colored, soft, chocolatey red wine.
Ehrenfelser White Grape Created by crossing the Johannisberg Riesling grape and a Sylvaner grape clone, Ehrenfelser is extremely frost resistant. The wine it creates tastes a great deal like Riesling wine. Ehrenfelser is grown primarily in Canada.
Fiano White Grape Native to southern Italy, this grape produces a white wine with pear and spice flavors. Also tropical flavors, citrus and a nutty edge.
Gamay Red Grape This is the only grape in red Beaujolais wine, in France. At an early age, flavors have been described as bananas and bubble gum, and evolve into spice, mint, hazelnuts and walnuts.
Gewürztraminer White Grape Means “spice” in German. It has a slight grapefruit, ground pepper, floral, and nutty taste. In Alsace it is drier than the German versions and usually medium-bodied. Also grown in Italy, California, Canada, and Australia.
Grand Vidure Red Grape Also known as the Carmenere grape, this low-yielding grape was best known for its use in Medoc wines. Cuttings were taken to Chile in the mid-nineteenth century.
Grenache (noir) Red Grape Common in the Rhone and Spain (as Garnacha), it is a deeply colored, fruity red, but a bit on the rustic side. Usually blended and primarily found in the wines of the Southern Rhone.
Grenache Blanc White Grape The white Grenache variant that is widely planted in France and Spain. It is an ancient Spanish variety that has the potential to produce a good-quality, full-bodied wine.
Johannisberg Riesling White Grape A synonym often used to distinguish a wine made from the true Riesling grape. It is said to be at its best in the Rheingau vineyards of Johannisberg thus the name.
Lambrusco Red Grape An Italian variety, famous for its production of the medium-sweet, red, frothy wine of the same name in the Emilia-Romagna area.
Lemberger Red Grape Aliases for Blaufrankish and Limberger. Lemberger is a popular Austrian wine that is also planted heavily in Washington state.
Malbec Red Grape A grape traditionally used in Boreaux blends to provide color and tannin. Also grown in the Loire, Cahors and Mediterranean regions, and is THE red grape in Mendoza. Black cherry, tobacco and chocolate flavors.
Malvasia White Grape Most widely used as Malvasia Bianca.  It can produce wines in a wide variety of styles ranging from very dry to very sweet.  In any form, the wines have aromas of pears and spice with fresh fruity flavors.
Marsanne White Grape A grape that makes fat, rich, full wines and one of the two major varieties used to produce the rare white wines of Hermitage and Chateauneuf-du-Pape.
Mauzac White Grape A late-ripening grape with good natural acidity, grown in southwest France. Flexible in the styles of wine it produces, it is particularly suitable for sparkling wine.
Meritage Red Grape Not a grape, but a California-style blend of predominantly Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc (<10%). It has qualities and similarities that often rival its French Bordeaux red wine cousin.
Merlot Red Grape This is an early ripening grape, with gentle flavors of plum, cherry, and sometimes toffee. In some areas of France, it can take over as the main grape in the Bordeaux blend.
Merlot Blanc White Grape A variety cultivated on a surprisingly large scale on the right-bank of the Gironde, yet said to be unrelated to the more famous black Merlot variety.
Mission Red Grape One of the earliest grapes planted by Spanish settlers in South and Central America and California.
Monastrell Red Grape Spanish version of Mourvédre grape.
Mourvédre Red Grape An excellent-quality grape variety that has been used in Chateauneuf-du-Pape blends in recent years. It is grown under the name of Monastrell in Spain and Mataro in Australia and a popular grape in Chile.
Muscadelle White Grape Part of the confusing-Musc-series, Muscadelle is one of the white grapes grown in Bordeaux. Not related to the Muscat grape, but does have a grapey-tasting flavor. This grape is most well known for its use in the Tokay.
Muscadine White Grape Grown almost exclusively in the southeastern U.S. and in Mexico, the Muscadine is a large grape with a thick skin. It is very hearty, very aromatic, and grows in regions that may be inhospitable to other grapes.
Muscat White Grape A family name for numerous related varieties, sub-varieties and localized clones of the same variety, all of which have a distinctive musky aroma and a pronounced grapey flavour. The wines produced range from dry to sweet, still to sparkling and fortified.
Muscat Red Grape This is a very grapey-tasting grape that doesn’t ripen easily. There are various varieties of Muscat, such as Muscat blanc, Moscato (Italy), which is used for the sparkling Asti Spumanti wines, and Muscadel.
Müller Thurgau White Grape The grape most widely planted in Germany, Müller-Thurgau comes as a mix of Riesling and Sylvaner. This is also grown in Austria, New Zealand and the northwest section of the U.S. It has a floral aroma.
Nebbiolo Red Grape This is a late ripening grape that’s known for being tannic, pruny, tarry and chocolaty. It is notoriously difficult to grow, but adds complexity and ageability to wines. Also known as Spanna.
Pais Red Grape See Mission grape.
Palomino White Grape Native of Spain and used in the production of fine sherries.  It is a variety that is used especially for the dry light Fino sherries.
Petit Verdot Red Grape A grape used in Bordeaux because it is a late-ripener, bringing acidity to the overall balance of a wine. Not seen as a unique wine varietal, but can produce a characterful, long-lived and tannic wine when ripe.
Petite Sirah Red Grape Often confused as a relative of the Syrah grape, but really a different varietal. It produces intensely flavored wines with a lot of tannin.
Pinot Blanc White Grape A variety at its best in Alsace where it is most successful, producing fruity, well-balanced wines with good grip and alcohol content. Also known under the more common name of chenin blanc in central France.
Pinot Gris White Grape This is a clone of Pinot Noir, grown in France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and along the west coast of the US. It’s also known as Rulander or Grauer Burgunder. It can be used to create both fine whites and roses’.
Pinot Meunier Red Grape An important variety in Champagne, where, vinified white, it gives more up-front appeal of fruit than the Pinot noir when young. It is essential for early-drinking Champagnes. Now showing up as a single varietal wine.
Pinot Noir Red Grape Used to produce Burgundy wine and makes wines which are moderately fruity with noticeable red-berry (stawberry, cherry, raspberry) floral, and spicy aromas. Usually medium-bodied, dry, and light to moderately tannic. Without skins, they are used in Champagne.
Pinotage Red Grape Developed in the early 1900’s and used primarily by South Africa, Pinotage is a mix between pinot noir and cinsaut. The grape makes a wine that is hearty, with a fruity and spice taste.
Portugieser Red Grape The widest-planted black grape variety in Germany, originating from the Danube district of Austria. As it makes very ordinary and extremely light red wine, it is often used in bad years to blend with the too acidic white wines.
Primitivo Red Grape An Italian variety, grown in Apulia, where it produces rich wines, sometimes sweet or fortified. Some think it is the same variety as Zinfandel.
Riesling White Grape Most fine German wines from the Moselle and Rhine areas are made from Riesling, which may have floral, fruity (citrus, peach, apricot, pineapple) and honey aromas. Light to medium-bodied.
Rondinella Red Grape An Italian variety, secondary to the Corvina grape in terms of area planted, used for the production of Bardolino and Valpolicella.
Roussanne White Grape One of the two major varieties used to produce the rare white wines of Hermitage and Chateauneuf-du-Pape in France’s Rhone Valley. This grape makes the finer, more delicate wines, while those made from the Marsanne are fatter and richer.
Sangiovese Red Grape The principal variety used in Chianti, it is grown in Italy’s Tuscany region. In a pure varietal form it has floral, herbal and cherry aromas, and now popular in California.
Sauvignon Blanc White Grape This grape is grown primarily in California and France. It has a grassy flavor and makes a crisp, light wine. The same grape is used in Fumé Blanc wine, which is its “drier” version.
Scheurebe White Grape This is a mix between Sylvaner and Johannisberg Riesling. It is mostly planted in Germany and is used for aromatic white wines.
Semillon White Grape This thin-skinned, grape ripens early and is used mostly in Bordeaux, France. It has a grassy, “figgy” flavor. It is also grown and showing promise in Australia and California, and is often blended with Sauvignon Blanc.
Shiraz Red Grape Australian grape varietal. See Syrah
Siegerrebe White Grape A German Madeleine Angevine x Gewurztraminer cross. Can make a very good dry/off-dry dinner wine, but best as a late harvest dessert wine.
Steen White Grape A synonym for the Chenin blanc used in South Africa. Not to be mistaken by “Stein” which is also used in South Africa, but rather a semi-sweet style of white wine. Many “Stein” blends contain a large percentage of of Steen.
Sylvaner White Grape Originally from Austria, this variety is widely planted throughout Central Europe. It is prolific, early maturing and yields the dry wines of Franken and Alsace. It is also widely believed to be the Zierfandler of Austria.
Syrah Red Grape The name is derived from Shiraz, the capital of Fars, a province of Iran. In Hermitage, in the northern Rhone, the grape makes big, rich tannic wines with a good deal of fruit. Known as Shiraz in Australia.
Tempranillo Red Grape The most important variety in Rioja, where it is traditional to blend the grapes. Also grown in Argentina. Many pure Tempranillo wines though, are of excellent quality, producing long-lived wines of some finesse and complexity.
Tinta Cao Red Grape One of the best Port grapes.
Torrontés White Grape Argentina’s famous white grape, it produces spicy, dry, refreshing whites. It started life in Galicia, northwest Spain, where it is still found in the white wines of Ribeiro.
Touriga Nacional Red Grape The finest Port grape in the entire Couro. The wine is fantastically rich and tannic, with masses of fruit, and is capable of great longevity and complexity.
Trollinger Red Grape A variety mainly restricted to the Wurttemberg region of Germany. It produces fresh and fruity red wine.
Verdicchio White Grape Maritime aromas, crisp fruit and almond flavored finish characterize this Italian grape. It produces a full-bouquet, fruit-packed wine that sometimes requires a bit of oak to add heft.
Vermentino White Grape Sweet without being fat, this Spanish varietal is widely planted in Italy and produces a fresh and fruity summer wine. Has notes of apple, pear and herbs but can be borderline meaty.
Vernaccia White Grape One of Italy’s native grapes, it has been around for centuries and is somewhat simple and lightly aromatic. It provides light citrus and apples flavors and is often blended with chardonnay to give it structure.
Viognier White Grape This varietal originated in Condrieu, on the northern Rhone. It is predominately found in the Rhone Valley and now California. Noted for spice, floral, citrus, aprict, apple, and peach flavors.
Vranac Red Grape A grape indigenous to Yugoslavia, where it makes dark-colored, full-bodied, characterful wines.
Zinfandel Red Grape Regarded in California as a native grape, but may have its heritage as the Primativo grape of Italy. Used for the origional “blush” wines but usually make jammy, spicy wines.


  • 0

Be Aware of Wine Prices in Dublin’s Supermarkets

Tags : 

I don’t buy my wines in supermarkets anymore, nor in off-licenses, nor in wine shops… It’s been some time already that I only buy my wines online, from off-shore shops around Europe, wherever I can get a good deal in the shipment. This does not prevent me from being a market observer, and I’m constantly out there checking wine prices, and you don’t have to be a sophisticated wine shopper to notice that wine prices tend to zigzag up and down like youngers making their way back home from a good craic. And then, we end up buying the nearest bottle that is on offer…
Supermarkets understand this, and most of the wine sold in Ireland is sold on some sort of offer, just for the use of the words “sales”, “half price”, “offer”, etc. Some people are triggered by those words, but in reality they’re telling us that we don’t have a clue on how much they are actually worth!Recently I’ve checked prices mostly in SuperQuinn, because is my local store, and to take an example, El Circulo, a red crianza Spanish Rioja, was retailed at €20, normal price, but was on sales for €10 the most of the year, but now SQ its normal price is €21,99! Other example is Farnese Lava Greco Di Tufo, a white Italian now retailed at €16.49 (on sale for €13,00), but I well remember not long ago its full price was €13,99, on sales for €7!

This is clearly not a SuperQuinn’s phenomenon… Neither a Dublin’s one! I checked Tesco’s half-price offers online for the week (hurry up… it ends today!!) and they include a “Special Offer” were you save €11.29 (!) when buying Oceans Edge Pinot Grigio, which allegedly was €19.29 but now is only €8.00! Guess what? The actual price was €9.99 for the most of this year, with some offers on €8, but now they want you to believe it’s a super special sale! If you pay €19.29 for it and then find that out later, would you feel like you’ve been conned?

  • 0

Spanish Wines – The Use of Oak Barrels

Tags : 

The use of oak plays a significant role in winemaking for Spanish wines, and can have a profound effect on the resulting wine, affecting color, flavor, texture and quality. The use of oak barrels can impart other qualities to wine through the processes of evaporation and low level exposure to oxygen.

The porous nature of an oak barrel allows some levels of evaporation and oxygenation to occur in wine. This evaporation (of mostly alcohol and water) allows the wine to concentrate its flavor and aroma compounds. The chemical properties of oak itself can have a profound effect on the wine, interacting with the wine to produce different flavors. Flavor notes that are common descriptions of wines exposed to oak include caramel, cream, smoke, spice and vanilla. Chardonnay is a variety that has very distinct flavor profiles when fermented in oak that include coconut, cinnamon and cloves notes. The “toastiness” of the barrel can bring out varying degrees of mocha and toffee notes.

The length of time that a wine spends in the barrel is dependent on the varietal and style of wine that the winemaker wishes to make. The majority of oak flavoring is imparted in the first few months that the wine is in contact with oak but a longer term exposure can affect the wine through the light aeration that the barrel which quickens the aging process of the wine.

New World Pinot noir may spend less than a year in oak. Premium Cabernet Sauvignon may spend two years. The very tannic Nebbiolo grape may spend four or more years in oak. High end Rioja producers will sometimes age their wines up to ten years in American oak to get a desired earthy cedar and herbal character.

In Spain, they classify the wines by the time they spend in barrels.

Young Wines are wines that have not seen any barrels, and are better consumed within 1-3 years from released.

Young Crianza Wines are wines that have staged in barrels for a short period, usually less then 6 months.

Crianza Wines are quality wines that are subject to an aging process of at least 24 months, from which at least six in oak barrels. For white and rosé the period is 18 months.

Reserva Wines have a minimum aging period of 36 months, from which at least 12 in oak barrels, and the rest in the bottle. For white and rosé wines, it must be at least 24 months.

Grand Reserva Wines have at least 18 months in oak barrels and 42 in bottles, reaching 5 years in total. For white and rosé wines, the minimum aging period is 48 months in wood and bottle.

  • 0

Robert Parker’s rating points

Robert Parker

Robert Parker’s rating system employs a 50-100 point scale (Parker Points®), which is utilized only to enhance and complement the tasting notes, which is the primary meaning of expressing the tastings.Robert Parker is arguably the world’s most influential wine critic. His bi-monthly newsletter “The Wine Advocate” was first published in 1978, and now has a profound effect on both prices and market demand for fine wines around the world. Robert Parker’s influence on fine wine prices cannot be overstated. Historically, the wines that Robert Parker scores highest, particularly those awarded more than 90 points, tend to be the wines that show the biggest increase in value.

How it works:
Each wine is given an initial 50 points. General colour and appearance can merit up to 5 points. Aroma and bouquet are worth up to 15 points. Flavour and finish account for up to 20 points. Finally, the overall quality level or potential for further evolution and improvement-aging merit up to 10 points.

Many Bordeaux producers now wait for Parker’s ratings before setting the release price of their wines. Many wines are now produced in styles specifically designed to win ‘Parker points’, as well. Is the capital overtaking the art of wine producers?

The Parker rating explained:
An extraordinary wine of profound and complex character displaying all the attributes expected of a classic wine of its variety. Wines of this calibre are worth a special effort to find, purchase, and consume.

An outstanding wine of exceptional complexity and character. In short, these are terrific wines.

A barely above average to very good wine displaying various degrees of finesse and flavour as well as character with no noticeable flaws.

An average wine with little distinction except that it is a soundly made. In essence, a straightforward, innocuous wine.

A below average wine containing noticeable deficiencies, such as excessive acidity and/or tannin, an absence of flavour, or possibly dirty aromas or flavours.

A wine deemed to be unacceptable.

  • 0
Wine glasses

A different glass for each wine

Tags : 

Wine glasses

Wine Glasses

My father would say this is very haughty, but it is true: the shape of a wine glass can alter the wine aroma – or bouquet – of the wine.In general, every wine glass will have a slightly different shape, depending upon the type of wine that particular glass is to be used for. The glass must be colourless and very thin as to not alter the taste of the wine. So, forget about that fancy decorated glass your aunt gave you… it might be gorgeous but it’s not for wines!There are many types of wine glasses. A wine glass can hold 125 ml, 250 ml or 350 ml. It is important to notice that a glass of wine should never be totally full. When pouring the wine you should allow some space to wine to breathe, with circular movements to aerate and reveal the subtlety of the bouquet, without being too wide to allow some blending of the flavours.

All good wine glasses are shaped in a way that will direct the wine to the part of your mouth where its flavor will be most appreciated. The glass also needs to be thin, and finally, the shape must be adapted according to the alcohol’s traits. Yes, almost a different glass for each type of wine!

The bowls of the most of the wine glasses will be tapered upward with a slightly narrower opening at the top than at the bottom, which helps to capture and distribute the wine’s aroma in the glass towards your mouth and nose.

In all types of wine glasses the bowl must be large enough to swirl your wine, opening it up to more air and allowing its aromas to be released. Swirling your wine is not just for the connoisseur or the haughty, it really does serve a very important purpose!

So, far beyond the usual red, white, sweet and champagne, there are many other specifics glasses which claim to make the wine smell and taste better. You just have to give them a try and prove by yourself!